1-877-439-2744 Motherisk Helpline
1-800-436-8477 Morning Sickness
1-877-327-4636 Alcohol and Substance
1-866-937-7678 Exercise in Pregnancy
1-888-246-5840 HIV and HIV Treatment
416-813-6780 Motherisk Helpline
Pregnancy & Breastfeeding Resources
- Read more in our News Archive
Current Studies at Motherisk
The Safety of Diclectin in Breastfeeding
Neurodevelopment of Children Exposed in-Utero to Chemotherapy for Maternal Breast Cancer (Dr. I Nulman)
Diclegis Surveillance Program Study
Diclectin Surveillance Program Study
Study seeks women between 4 and 12 weeks in their pregnancy with morning sickness (NVP)
Pregnancy in Women with Multiple Sclerosis
Alcohol Use during Pregnancy
Autoimmune Diseases in Pregnancy Project
Guidelines for maternal codeine use during breastfeeding
Parvaz Madadi, PhD, Myla Moretti, MSc, Nada Djokanovic, MD MSc, Pina Bozzo, Irena Nulman, MD FRCPC, Shinya Ito, MD FRCPC and Gideon Koren, MD FRCPC FACMT
In light of the recent evidence of adverse events in infants whose mothers use codeine medication, we have been struggling with the issue of how to manage codeine analgesia in our postpartum patients. What are some guidelines for the safe use of codeine during breastfeeding?
Motherisk has summarized recent scientific evidence into suggested guidelines for the safe use of codeine during breastfeeding.
Compte tenu des récentes données scientifiques sur les événements indésirables survenus chez des nourrissons dont les mères prenaient des médicaments avec codéine, nous nous demandons comment procéder en ce qui a trait à ladministration postpartum danalgésiques avec codéine à nos patientes. Existe-t-il des directives sur lutilisation sans danger de la codéine pendant lallaitement?
Motherisk a résumé les données scientifiques récentes sous forme de lignes directrices proposées pour lutilisation sécuritaire de la codéine durant lallaitement.
It is widely recognized that maternal pain should be managed following delivery, but the issue of how to adequately provide this pain relief has not been resolved. Any medication prescribed during the postpartum period must be safe and effective for mothers without causing harm to breastfed infants. Although there is an absence of scientific data supporting its use,1 many institutions in North America prescribe the combination of acetaminophen (300 mg), codeine (30 mg), and caffeine (15 mg) (ie, Tylenol No. 3) for analgesia following cesarean section or episiotomy.2 The rationale for choosing codeine analgesia appears to be institutional tradition and years of experience in the hospital setting. However, mothers rarely have follow-up appointments once discharged from the hospital, and recent evidence of adverse drug reactions in breastfed infants whose mothers are prescribed outpatient codeine medication3–5 necessitates guidelines in this population (Boxes 1 and 2).
A review of the pharmacologic mechanism of codeine analgesia sheds light on issues surrounding its postpartum use.6 Codeine is a prodrug that must be metabolized via the cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP 2D6) enzyme into morphine to elicit an analgesic effect7,8; however, the CYP 2D6 gene is highly polymorphic.9 While codeine is effective for most individuals worldwide who possess 2 functional copies of the gene, about 8% of Europeans do not possess any active gene copies, and thus are unable to receive analgesia.10 On the other hand, functional duplications of the CYP 2D6 gene (which range from 2% to 40% of individuals, depending on ethnic background10) enhance morphine biotransformation from codeine11 and have been associated with adverse events,12,13 including death in a breastfed infant.4,5 There are commercial tests available for CYP 2D6 genetic screening; however, clinical trials supporting its introduction in the hospital setting have not yet been performed.
|Box 1. Codeine use during breastfeeding |
While maternal genotype should certainly be considered before codeine is prescribed, patient education might be an equally important preventive measure. Newborn infants appear to be most sensitive to the effects of narcotic opioids as compared with older infants5,14–16; however, many mothers are unaware of the symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) depression and what to look for in their babies. In any case in which a baby is not fed well, does not wake up to be fed, does not gain weight, or shows limpness, he or she should be examined by a physician. These symptoms tend to appear after 4 days3,5 of continuous breastfeeding while using codeine and are likely due to the accumulation of morphine in the infant.17 It follows that higher maternal codeine dose is associated with a higher risk of neonatal adverse events.3,5 Thus, if pain still necessitates codeine after 4 days, an attempt should be made to decrease the dose or to switch to non-codeine painkillers (eg, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs).5 There is also a strong correlation between CNS depression in the mother and the breastfed baby,5 which can serve as a warning flag for mothers; if a mother herself feels groggy or sedated, her baby should be examined by a physician for signs of CNS depression as well.
|Box 2. Motherisk guidelines for safe use of medications that contain codeine during breastfeeding: These guidelines are based on the available scientific data |
As the postpartum length of hospital stay has decreased in Canada,18 the onus for providing a safe and effective analgesic for maternal outpatient use has increased. The strategy of replacing codeine with another opioid analgesic is troublesome in the absence of safety data and clinical experience. However, if codeine is to remain the first-line treatment of postpartum pain, practitioners, as well as patients, should be educated on its risks.
Motherisk questions are prepared by the Motherisk Team at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ont. Dr Madadi, Ms Moretti, Ms Bozzo, and Drs Djokanovic and Ito are members of the Motherisk Program. Dr Nulman is Associate Director and Dr Koren is Director of the Motherisk Program. Dr Koren is supported by the Research Leadership for Better Pharmacotherapy during Pregnancy and Lactation. He holds the Ivey Chair in Molecular Toxicology in the Department of Medicine at the University of Western Ontario in London.
Can Fam Physician
Vol.55, No. 11, November 2009, pp.1077 - 1078
Copyright © 2009 by The College of Family Physicians of Canada
- Nauta M, Landsmeer ML, Koren G. Effectiveness and safety of NSAIDs versus acetaminophen/codeine in the treatment of maternal post partum pain: a systematic review. Am J Surg 2009;198:256?61. [Medline]
- Peter EA, Janssen PA, Grange CS, Douglas MJ. Ibuprofen versus acetaminophen with codeine for the relief of perineal pain after childbirth: a randomized controlled trial. CMAJ 2001;165(9):1203?9.
[Abstract/Free Full Text]
- Madadi P, Shirazi F, Walter FG, Koren G. Establishing causality of CNS depression in breastfed infants following maternal codeine use. Paediatr Drugs 2008;10(6):399?404. [Medline]
- Koren G, Cairns J, Chitayat D, Gaedigk A, Leeder SJ. Pharmacogenetics of morphine poisoning in a breastfed neonate of a codeine-prescribed mother. Lancet 2006;368(9536):704. [Medline]
- Madadi P, Ross CJ, Hayden MR, Carleton BC, Gaedigk A, Leeder JS, et al. Pharmacogenetics of neonatal opioid toxicity following maternal use of codeine during breastfeeding: a case-control study. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2009;85(1):31?5. Epub 2008 Aug 20. [Medline]
- Madadi P, Koren G. Pharmacogenetic insights into codeine analgesia: implications to pediatric codeine use. Pharmacogenomics 2008;9(9):1267?84. [Medline]
- Chen ZR, Somogyi AA, Reynolds G, Bochner F. Disposition and metabolism of codeine after single and chronic doses in one poor and seven extensive metabolisers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1991;31(4):381?90. [Medline]
- Yue QY, Hasselstrom J, Svensson JO, Sawe J. Pharmacokinetics of codeine and its metabolites in Caucasian healthy volunteers: comparisons between extensive and poor hydroxylators of debrisoquine. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1991;31(6):635?42. [Medline]
- Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Committee [website]. CYP2D6 allele nomenclature. Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Committee; 2009. Available from: www.cypalleles.ki.se/cyp2d6.htm. Accessed 2009 Feb 5.
- Sistonen J, Sajantila A, Lao O, Corander J, Barbujani G, Fuselli S. CYP2D6 worldwide genetic variation shows high frequency of altered activity variants and no continental structure. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2007;17(2):93?101. [Medline]
- Kirchheiner J, Schmidt H, Tzvetkov M, Keulen JT, L?tsch J, Roots I, et al. Pharmacokinetics of codeine and its metabolite morphine in ultra-rapid metabolizers due to CYP2D6 duplication. Pharmacogenomics J 2007;7(4):257?65. Epub 2006 Jul 4. [Medline]
- Gasche Y, Daali Y, Fathi M, Chiappe A, Cottini S, Dayer P, et al. Codeine intoxication associated with ultrarapid CYP2D6 metabolism. N Engl J Med 2004;351(27):2827?31. Erratum in: N Engl J Med 2005;352(6)638. [Google Scholar]
- Dal?n P, Frengell C, Dahl ML, Sj?qvist F. Quick onset of severe abdominal pain after codeine in an ultrarapid metabolizer of debrisoquine. Ther Drug Monit 1997;19(5):543?4. [Medline]
- Way WL, Costley EC, Leongway E. Respiratory sensitivity of the newborn infant to meperidine and morphine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1965;6:454?61. [Medline]
- Koren G, Butt W, Chinyanga H, Soldin S, Tan YK, Pape K. Postoperative morphine infusion in newborn infants: assessment of disposition characteristics and safety. J Pediatr 1985;107(6):963?7. [Medline]
- Bouwmeester NJ, Hop WC, van Dijk M, Anand KJ, van den Anker JN, Tibboel D. Postoperative pain in the neonate: age-related differences in morphine requirements and metabolism. Intensive Care Med 2003;29(11):2009?15. Epub 2003 Jul 25. [Medline]
- Willmann S, Edginton AN, Coboeken K, Ahr G, Lippert J. Risk to the breast-fed neonate from codeine treatment to the mother: a quantitative mechanistic modeling study. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2009Epub ahead of print. [Google Scholar]
- Cargill Y, Martel MJ, Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Postpartum maternal and newborn discharge. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2007;29(4):357?63. [Medline]