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ACE Inhibitors

Taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors during pregnancy - Is it safe?

Almundher Al-Maawali, MD, Asnat Walfisch, MD and Gideon Koren, MD, FRCPC, FACMT

January 2012

ABSTRACT

QUESTION

One of my 35-year-old pregnant patients has been treated with enalapril for primary hypertension. She learned she was pregnant at 11 weeks' gestation. I read somewhere that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors can cause malformations. What advice do you give to Motherisk callers?

ANSWER

Most published studies have failed to show an effect of ACE inhibitors on congenital malformations. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis conducted by Motherisk does not suggest increased fetal risk of malformations. However, ACE inhibitors should be avoided in late pregnancy, as they might cause renal failure and acalvaria in the baby.

QUESTION

L'une de mes patientes enceintes âgée de 35 ans est traitée avec de l'énalapril pour une hypertension primaire. Elle a appris qu'elle était enceinte après 11 semaines de gestation. J'ai lu quelque part que les inhibiteurs de l'enzyme de conversion de l'angiotensine (ECA) peuvent causer des malformations. Quels conseils donnezvous à ceux qui posent des questions à ce sujet à Motherisk?

La plupart des études publiées n'ont pas réussi à révéler des effets attribuables aux inhibiteurs de l'ECA sur les malformations congénitales. Une récente synthèse critique et une méta-analyse réalisées par Motherisk n'indiquent pas qu'il puisse y avoir des risques fœtaux accrus de malformations. Toutefois, il faudrait éviter les inhibiteurs de l'ECA en fin de grossesse, car ils pourraient causer une insuffisance rénale et l'absence de voûte crânienne chez le bébé.

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